Fourth Sunday After Epiphany: Christian Love and the Command to Love
Sermons of Martin Luther-Baker-OUT OF PRINT
Text: Romans 13, 8-10. 8 Owe no man anything, save to love one another:
for he that loveth his neighbor bath fulfillled the law. 9 For this, Thou
shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou
shalt not covet, and if there be any other commandment, it is summed up
in this word, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 10 Love
worketh no ill to his neighbor; love therefore is the fulfillment of the
CHRISTIAN LOVE AND THE COMMAND TO LOVE.
1. This, like the two preceding epistle lessons, is admonitory, and
directs our attention to the fruits of faith. Here, however, Paul sums
up briefly all the fruits of faith, in love. In the verses going before
he enjoined subjection to temporal government the rendering of tribute,
custom, fear and honor wherever due since all governmental power is ordained
of God. Then follows our lesson: "Owe no man anything," etc.
2. I shall ignore the various explanations usually invented for this
command, "Owe no man anything, but to love one another." To me,
clearly and simply it means: Not as men, but as Christians, are we under
obligations. Our indebtedness should be the free obligation of love. It
should not be compulsory and law-prescribed. Paul holds up two forms of
obligation: one is inspired by law, the other by love. Legal obligations
make us debtors to men; an instance is when one individual has a claim
upon another for debt. The duties and tribute, the obedience and honor,
we owe to political government are of this legal character. Though personally
these things are not essential to the Christian they do not justify him
nor make him more righteous yet, because he must live here on earth, he
is under obligation, so far as outward conduct is concerned, to put himself
on a level with other men in these things, and generally to help maintain
temporal order and peace. Christ paid tribute money as a debt (Mt 17, 27),
notwithstanding he had told Peter he was under no obligation to do so and
would have committed no sin before God in omitting the act.
3. Another obligation is love, when a Christian voluntarily makes himself
a servant of all men. Paul says (1 Cor 9, 19), "For though I was free
from all men, I brought myself under bondage to all." This is not
a requirement of human laws; no one who fails in this duty is censured
or punished for neglect of legal obligations. The world is not aware of
the commandment to love; of the obligation to submit to and serve a fellow-man.
This fact is very apparent. Let one have wealth, and so long as he refrains
from disgracing his neighbor's wife, from appropriating his neighbor's
goods, sullying his honor or injuring his person, he is, in the eyes of
the law, righteous. No law punishes him for avarice and penuriousness;
for refusing to lend, to give, to aid, and to help his wronged neighbor
secure justice. Laws made for restraint of the outward man are directed
only toward evil works, which they prohibit and punish. Good works are
left to voluntary performance. Civil law does not extort them by threats
and punishment, but commends and rewards them, as does the Law of Moses.
4. Paul would teach Christians to so conduct themselves toward men and
civil authority as to give no occasion for complaint or censure because
of unfulfillled indebtedness to temporal law. He would not have them fail
to satisfy the claims of legal obligation, but rather to go beyond its
requirements, making themselves debtors voluntarily and serving those who
have no claims on them. Relative to this topic, Paul says (Ram 1, 14),
"I am debtor both to Greeks and to Barbarians." Love's obligation
enables a man to do more than is actually required of him Hence the Christian
always willingly renders to the state and to the individual all service
exacted by temporal regulations, permitting no claims upon himself in this
5. Paul's injunction, then, might be expressed: Owe all men, that you
may owe none; owe everything, that you may owe nothing. This sounds paradoxical.
But one indebtedness is that of love, an obligation to God. The other is
indebtedness to temporal law, an obligation in the eyes of the world. He
who makes himself a servant, who takes upon himself love's obligation to
all men, goes so far that no one dares complain of omission; indeed, he
goes farther than any could desire. Thus he is made free. He lives under
obligation to no one from the very fact that he puts himself under obligation
to all. This manner of presenting the thought would be sustained by the
Spirit in connection with other duties; for instance: Do no good work,
that you may do only good works. Never be pious and holy, if you would
be always pious and holy. As Paul says (ch. 12, 16), "Be not wise
in your own conceits"; or (1 Cor 3, 18), "If any man thinketh
that he is wise among you in this world, let him become a fool, that he
may become wise." It is in this sense we say: Owe all men that you
may owe no man; or, "Owe no man anything, but to love one another."
6. Such counsel is given with the thought of the two obligations. He
who would perform works truly good in the sight of God, must guard against
works seemingly brilliant in the eyes of the world, works whereby men presume
to become righteous. He who desires to be righteous and holy must guard
against the holiness attained by works without faith. Again, the seeker
for wisdom must reject the wisdom of men, of nature, wisdom independent
of the Spirit. Similarly, he who would be under obligation to none must
obligate himself to all in every respect. So doing, he retains no claim
of his own. Consequently, he soon rises superior to all law, for law binds
only those who have claims of their own. Rightly is it said, "Qui
cedit omnibus bonds, omnibus satisfecit," "He who surrenders
all his property, satisfies all men." How can one be under obligation
when he does not, and cannot, possess anything? It is love's way to give
all. The best way, then, to be under obligation to none is, through love
to obligate one's self in every respect to all men. In this sense it may
be said: If you would live, die; if you would not be imprisoned, incarcerate
yourself; if you do not desire to go to hell, descend there; if you object
to being a sinner, be a sinner; if you would escape the cross, take it
upon yourself; if you would conquer the devil, let him vanquish you; would
you overcome a wicked individual, permit him to overcome you. The meaning
of it all is, we should readily submit to God, to the devil and to men,
and willingly permit their pleasure; we are to insist on nothing, but to
accept all things as they transpire. This is why Paul speaks as he does,
"Owe no man anything," etc., instead of letting it go at the
preceding injunction in verse 5, "Render therefore to all their dues,
LOVE FULFILLS THE LAW.
"For He that loveth his neighbor bath fulfillled the law."
7. Having frequently spoken of the character and fruits of love, it
is unnecessary to introduce the subject here. The topic is sufficiently
treated in the epistle lesson for the Sunday preceding Lent. We will look
at the command to love, in the Law of God. Innumerable, endless, are the
books and doctrines produced for the direction of man's conduct. And there
is still no limit to the making of books and laws. Note the ecclesiastical
and civil regulations, the spiritual orders and stations. These laws and
doctrines might be tolerated, might be received with more favor, if they
were founded upon and administered according to the one great law the one
rule or measure of love; as the Scriptures do, which present many different
laws, but all born of love, and comprehended in and subject to it. And
these laws must yield, must become invalid, when they convict with love.
Of Love's higher authority we find many illustrations in the Scriptures.
Christ makes particular mention of the matter in Matthew 12, 3-4, where
David and his companions ate the holy showbread. Though a certain law prohibited
all but the priests from partaking of this holy food, Love was empress
here, and free. Love was over the Law, subjecting it to herself. The Law
had to yield for the time being, had to become invalid, when David suffered
hunger. The Law had to submit to the sentence: "David hungers and
must be relieved, for Love commands, Do good to your needy neighbor. Yield,
therefore, thou Law. Prevent not the accomplishment of this good. Rather
accomplish it thyself. Serve him in his need. Interpose not thy prohibitions."
In connection with this same incident, Christ teaches that we are to do
good to our neighbor on the Sabbath; to minister as necessity demands,
whatever the Sabbath restrictions of the Law. For when a brother's need
calls, Love is authority and the Law of the Sabbath is void.
8. Were laws conceived and administered in love, the number of laws
would matter little. Though one might not hear or learn all of them, he
would learn from the one or two he had knowledge of, the principle of love
taught in all. And though he were to know all laws, he might not discover
the principle of love any more readily than he would in one. Paul teaches
this method of understanding and mastering law when he says: "Owe
no man anything, but to love one another"; "He that loveth another
hath fulfillled the law"; "If there be any other commandment,
it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy
neighbor as thyself"; "Love worketh no ill to his neighbor";
"Love is the fulfillling of the law." Every word in this epistle
lesson proves Love mistress of all law.
9. Further, no greater calamity, wrong and wretchedness is possible
on earth than the teaching and enforcing of laws without love. In such
case, laws are but a ruinous curse, making true the proverbs, "surnmum
jus, summa injustitia," "The most strenuous right is the most
strenuous wrong"; and again, Solomon's words (Ec 7, 17), "Noli
nimium esse justus," "Be not righteous overmuch." Here is
where we leave unperceived the beam in our own eye and proceed to remove
the mote from our neighbor's eye. Laws without love make the conscience
timid and fill it with unreasonable terror and despair, to the great injury
of body and soul. Thus, much trouble and labor are incurred all to no purpose.
10. An illustration in point is the before-mentioned incident of David
in his hunger. 1 Sam 21, 6. Had the priest been disposed to refuse David
the holy bread, had he blindly insisted on honoring the prohibitions of
the Law and failed to perceive the authority of Love, had he denied this
food to him who hungered, what would have been the result? So far as the
priest's assistance went, David would have had to perish with hunger, and
the priest would have been guilty of murder for the sake of the Law. Here,
indeed, "summum jus, summa injustitia" the most strenuous right
would have been the most strenuous wrong. Moreover, on examining the heart
of the priest who should be so foolish, you would find there the extreme
abomination of making sin where there is no sin, and a matter of conscience
where there is no occasion for it. For he holds it a sin to eat the bread,
when really it is an act of love and righteousness. Then, too, he regards
his act of murder permitting David to die of hunger not a sin, but a good
work and service to God.
11. But who can fully portray this blind, perverted, abominable folly?
It is the perpetration of an evil the devil himself cannot outdo. For it
makes sin where there is no sin, and a matter of conscience without occasion.
It robs of grace, salvation, virtue, and God with all his blessings, and
that without reason, falsely and deceitfully. It emphatically denies and
condemns God. Again, it makes murder and injustice a good work, a divine
service. It puts the devil with his falsehoods in the place of God. It
institutes the worst form of idolatry and ruins body and soul, destroying
the former by hunger and the latter by a terrified conscience. It makes
of God the devil, and of the devil God. It makes hell of heaven and heaven
of hell; righteousness of sin, and sin of righteousness. This I call perversion
where strictest justice is the most strenuous wrong. To this depravity
Ezekiel has reference (ch. 13, 18-19): "Thus saith the Lord Jehovah:
Woe to the women that sew pillows upon all elbows, and make kerchiefs for
the head of persons of every stature to hunt souls! Will ye hunt the souls
of my people, and save souls alive for yourselves ? And ye have profaned
me among my people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, to slay
the souls that should not die, and to save the souls alive that should
not live, by your lying to my people that hearken unto lies." What
is meant but that the blind teachers of the Law terrify the conscience,
and put sin and death in the place of grace and life, and grace and life
where is only sin and death; and all for a handful of barley and a bit
of bread? In other words, such teachers devote themselves to laws concerning
strictly external matters, things that perish with the using, such as a
drink of water and a morsel of bread, wholly neglecting love and harassing
the conscience with fear of sin unto eternal death; as Ezekiel goes on
to say (verses 22-23): "Because with lies ye have grieved the heart
of the righteous, whom I have not made sad, and strengthened the hands
of the wicked, that he should not return from his wicked way, and be saved
alive; therefore ye shall no more see false visions, nor divine divinations:
and ~ will deliver my people out of your hand; and ye shall know that I
12. Mark you, it is making the hearts of the righteous sad to load them
with sins when their works are good; it is strengthening the hands of the
wicked to make their works good when they are naught but sin. Relative
to this subject, we read (As 14, 5): "There were they in great fear;
for God is in the generation of the righteous." That is, the sting
of conscience fills with fear where there is neither reason for fear nor
for a disturbed conscience. That is feared as sin which is really noble
service to God. The thought of the last passage is: When they should call
upon God and serve him, they fear such conduct is sin and not divine service;
again, when they have need to fear a service not divine, they are secure
and unafraid. Isaiah's words (ch. 29, 13) are to the same effect: "Their
fear of me is a commandment of men which bath been taught them." A1ways
the perverted people spoken of corrupt everything. They confidently call
on God where is only the devil; they refrain in fear from calling on God
where God is.
13. Such, mark you, is the wretched condition of them who are blindly
occupied with laws and works and fail to comprehend the design of law and
its mistress Love. Note, also, in the case of our miserable ecclesiasts
and their followers, how rigidly they adhere to their own inventions! Though
all the world meet ruin, their devices must be sustained; they must be
perpetuated regardless of bodily illness and death, or of suffering and
ruin for the soul. They even regard such destruction and ruin as divine
service, and know no fear nor remorse of conscience. Indeed, so strongly
entrenched are they in their wickedness, they will never return from it.
Moreover, should one of their wretched number be permitted to alleviate
the distress of his body and soul to eat meat, to marry he is afraid, he
feels remorse of conscience; he is uncertain about sin and law, about death
and hell; he calls not on God, nor serves him; all this, even though the
body should die ten deaths and the soul go to the devil a hundred times.
14. Observe, then, the state of the world; how little flesh and blood
can accomplish even in their best efforts; how dangerous to undertake to
rule by law alone indeed, how impossible it is, without great danger, to
govern and instruct souls with mere laws, ignoring love and the Spirit,
in whose hands is the full power of all law. It is written (Deut 33, 2),
"At his right hand was a fiery law for them." This is the law
of love in the Spirit. It shall regulate all laws at the left hand; that
is, the external laws of the world. It is said (Ex 28, 30) that the priest
must bear upon his breast, in the breastplate, "the Urim and the Thummim";
that is, Light and Perfection, indicative of the priest's office to illuminate
the Law to give its true sense and faultlessly to keep and to teach it.
15. In the conception, the establishment and the observance of all laws,
the object should be, not the furtherance of the laws in themselves, not
the advancement of works, but the exercise of love. That is the true purpose
of law, according to Paul here, "He that loveth his neighbor bath
fulfillled the law." Therefore, when the law contributes to the injury
rather than the benefit of our neighbor, it should be ignored. The same
law may at one time benefit our neighbor and at another time injure him.
Consequently, it should be regulated according to its advantage to him.
Law should be made to serve in the same way that food and raiment and other
necessaries of life serve. We consider not the food and raiment themselves,
but their benefit to our needy neighbor. And we cease to dispense them
as soon as we perceive they no longer add to his comfort.
16. Suppose you were to come across an individual foolish enough to
act with no other thought than that food and clothing are truly good things,
and so proceed to stuff a needy one with unlimited food and drink unto
choking, and to clothe him unto suffocation, and then not to desist. Suppose
to the command, "Stop, you have suffocated, have already over-fed
and over-clothed him, and all is lost effort now," the foolish one
should reply: "You heretic, would you forbid good works? Food, drink
and raiment are good things, therefore we must not cease to dispense them;
we cannot do too much." And suppose he continued to force food and
clothing on the man. Tell me, what would you think of such a one? He is
a fool more than foolish; he is more mad than madness itself. But such
is about the character of our ecclesiasts today, and of those who are so
blind in the exercise of law as to act as if works were the only requisite,
and to suffocate body and soul, being ignorant that the one purpose of
law is to call forth the exercise of love. They make works superior to
love, and a maid to her matron. Such perversion prevails to an extent distressing
to think of, not to mention hearing and seeing it, or more, practicing
and permitting it ourselves.
17. The commandment of love is not a long one; it is short. It is one
injunction, not many. It is even not a commandment, and at the same time
is all commandments. Brief, and a unit in itself, its meaning is easily
comprehended. But in its exercise, it is far-reaching, for it includes
and regulates all commandments. So far as works are enjoined, it is no
commandment at all; it names no peculiar work. Yet it represents all commandments,
because properly the fulfillment of all commandments is the fulfillment
of this. The commandment of love suspends every commandment, yeast perpetuates
all. Its whole purpose is that we may recognize no commandment, no work,
except as love dictates.
18. As life on earth apart from works is an impossibility, necessarily
there must be various commandments involving works. Yet Love is supreme
over these require Dents, dictating the omission or the performance of
works according to its own best interests, and permitting no works opposed
To illustrate: A driver, holding the reins, guides team and wagon at
will. If he were content merely to hold the reins, regardless of whether
or no the team followed the road, the entire equipage team, wagon, reins
and driver would soon be wrecked; the driver would be lying drowned in
a ditch or a pool, or have his neck broken going over stumps and rocks.
But if he dextrously regulates the movement of the outfit according to
the road, observing where it is safe and where unsafe, he will proceed
securely because wisely. Were he, in his egotism, to drive straight ahead,
endeavoring to make the road conform to the movement of the wagon, at his
pleasure, he would soon see how beautifully his plan would work.
19. So it is when men are governed by laws and works, the laws not being
regulated according to the people. The case is that of the driver who would
regulate the road by the movements of the wagon. True, the road is often
well suited to the straight course of the wagon. But just as truly the
road is, in certain places, crooked and uneven, and then the wagon must
conform to the course and condition of the road. Men must adapt themselves
to laws and regulations wherever possible and where the laws are beneficial.
But where laws prove detrimental to men's interests, the former must yield.
The ruler must wisely make allowance for love, suspending works and laws.
Hence, philosophers say prudence or circumspection or discretion as the
ecclesiasts put it is the guide and regulator of all virtues.
20. We read in a book of the ancient fathers that on a certain occasion
of their assembling, the question was raised, which is really the noblest
work? Various replies were given. One said prayer, another fasting; but
St. Anthony was of the opinion that of all works and virtues, discretion
is the best and surest way to heaven. These, however, were but childish,
unspiritual ideas relating to their own chosen works. A Christian views
the matter in quite a different light, and more judiciously. He concludes
that neither discretion nor rashness avails before God. Only faith and
love serve with him. But love is true discretion; love is the driver and
the true discretion in righteous works. It always looks to the good of
the neighbor, to the amelioration of his condition; just as the discretion
of the world looks to the general welfare of the governed in the adjustment
of political laws. Let this suffice on this point.
21. But the question arises: How can love fulfilll the Law when love
is but one of the fruits of faith and we have frequently said that only
faith in Christ removes our sins, justifies us and satisfies all the demands
of the Law? How can we make the two claims harmonize? Christ says, too
(Mt 7, 12): "All things, therefore, whatsoever ye would that men should
do unto you, even so do ye also unto them: for this is the law and the
prophets." Thus he shows that love for one's neighbor fulfillls both
the Law and the prophets. Again, he says (Mt 22, 37-40): "Thou shalt
love the Lord thy God . . . thy neighbor as thyself. On these two the whole
law hangeth, and the prophets." Where, then, does Paul stand, who
says (Rom 3, 31): "Do we then make the law of none effect through
faith? God forbid: nay, we establish the law." Again (Rom 3, 28):
"We reckon therefore that a man is justified by faith apart from the
works of the law." And again (Rom 1, 17), "The righteous shall
live by faith."
22. I reply: As we have frequently said, we must properly distinguish
between faith and love. Faith deals with the heart, and love with the works.
Faith removes our sins, renders us acceptable, justifies us. And being
accepted and justified as to our person, love is given us in the Holy Spirit
and we delight in doing good. Now, it is the nature of the Law to attack
our person and demand good works; and it will not cease to demand until
it gains its point. We cannot do good works without the Spirit and love.
The Law constrains us to know ourselves with our imperfections, and to
recognize the necessity of our becoming altogether different individuals
that we may satisfy the Law. The Law does not exact so much of the heart
as of works; in fact, it demands nothing but works and ignores the heart.
It leaves the individual to discover, from the works required, that he
must become an altogether different person. But faith, when it comes, creates
a nature capable of accomplishing the works the Law demands. Thus is the
Law fulfillled. So Paul's sayings on the subject are beautiful and appropriate.
The Law demands of us works; it must be fulfilled by works. Hence it cannot
in every sense be said that faith fulfills the Law. However, it prepares
the way and enables us to fulfill it, for the Law demands, not us, but
our works. The Law constrains us teaches us that we must be changed before
we can accomplish its works; it makes us conscious of our inability as
we are. On the other hand, love and works do not change us, do not justify
us. We must be changed in person and justified before we can love and do
good works. Our love and our works are evidence of justification and of
a change, since they are impossible until the individual is free from sin
and made righteous.
23. This explanation is given to enable us to perceive the true nature of the Law, of faith and of love; to ascribe to each its own mission; and rightly to understand the Scripture declarations in their harmonious relations that while faith justifies, it does not fulfill the Law, and that while love does not justify, it does fulfill the Law. The Law requires love and works, but does not mention the heart. The heart is sensible of the Law, but love is not. Just as the Law, in requiring works before faith exists, is a sign to the individual leading him to recognize his utter lack of faith and righteousness, and to conclude he is conquered, so love in its fulfillment of the Law after faith intervenes is a sign and a proof to the individual of his faith and righteousness. Law and love, then, witness to him concerning his unrighteousness or his righteousness. After faith comes, love is evidence of righteousness. Before faith, man is sensible of the Law's oppression because he knows he does not possess what the Law requires. And the Law does not require a changed heart, but works. Love and works do not effect the fulfillment of the Law; they are themselves its fulfillment.
24. Now, though faith does not fulfill the Law, it contains that which effects its fulfillment; it secures the Spirit and love whereby the end is accomplished. On the other hand, if love does not justify us, it makes manifest the faith whereby we are justified. Briefly, as Paul says here, "Love is the fulfillment of the law." His thought is: Fulfillment of the Law is one thing, and effecting or furnishing its fulfillment another. Love fulfills the Law in the sense that love itself is its fulfillment; but faith fulfills it in the sense that it offers that by which it is fulfilled. For faith loves and works, as said in Galatians 5, 6, "Faith worketh through love." The water fills the pitcher; so does the cupbearer. The water fills of itself; the cupbearer fills with the water "effective et formaliter implore," as the sophists would say.
25. Faith is ever the actor, and love the act. The law requires the
act and thus forces the actor to be changed. The Law is then fulfilled
by the act, which, however, the actor must perform. Thus Paul rejects the
fancies of the sophists, who in the matter of love would make a distinction
between the external work and the inner affection, saying: "Love is
an inner affection that loves our neighbor when in our heart we wish him
well." Its expression in works, however, they call the fruit of love.
But we will not discuss this idea. Note, Paul terms love not only an affection,
but an affectionate good act. Faith and the heart are the actor and fulfiller
of the Law. Paul says, "He that loveth his neighbor bath fulfilled
the law." And love is the act, the fulfilling; for he says, "Love
is the fulfillment of the law."
26. Another question arises: How can love for our neighbor be the fulfillment
of the Law when we are required to love God supremely, even above our neighbor?
I reply: Christ answers the question when he tells us (Mt 32, 39) the second
commandment is like unto the first. He makes love to God and love to our
neighbor the same love. The reason for this is, first: God, having no need
for our works and benefactions for himself, bids us to do for our neighbor
what we would do for God. He asks for himself only our faith and our recognition
of him as God. The object of proclaiming his honor and rendering him praise
and thanks inure on earth is that our neighbor may be converted and brought
into fellowship with God. Such service is called the love of God, and is
performed out of love to God; but it is exercised for the benefit of our
27. The second reason why God makes love to our neighbor an obligation
equal to love to himself is: God has made worldly wisdom foolish, desiring
henceforth to be loved amid crosses and afflictions. Paul says (1 Cor 1,
21), "Seeing that in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom
knew not God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness of the
preaching to save them that believe." Therefore, upon the cross he
submitted himself unto death and misery, and imposed the same submission
upon all his disciples. They who refused to love him before when he bestowed
upon them food and drink, blessing and honor, must now love him in hunger
and sorrow, in adversity and disgrace. All works of love, then, must be
directed to our wretched, needy neighbors. In these lowly ones we are to
find and love God, in them we are to serve and honor him, and only so can
we do it. The commandment to love God is wholly merged in that to love
28. These facts restrain those elusive, soaring spirits that seek after
God only in great and glorious undertakings. It stops the mouths of those
who strive after greatness like his, who would force themselves into heaven,
presuming to serve and love him with their brilliant works. But they miss
him by passing over him in their earthly neighbor, in whom God would be
loved and honored. Therefore, they will hear, on the last day, the sentence
(Mt25, 42), "I was hungry, and ye did not give me to eat," etc.
For Christ laid aside his divinity and took upon himself the form of a
servant for the very purpose of bringing down and centering upon our neighbor
the love we extend to himself. Yet we leave the Lord to lie here in his
humiliation while we gaze open-mouthed into heaven and make great pretensions
to love and service to God.
ALL COMMANDMENTS SUMMED UP IN LOVE.
"For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill,
Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment,
it is briefly summed up in this word, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor
29. Love being the chief element of all law, it comprehends, as has
been made sufficiently clear, all commandments. Its one concern is to be
useful to man and not harmful; therefore, it readily discovers the way.
Recognizing the fact that man, from his ardent self-love, seeks to promote
his own interests and avoid injuring them, love endeavors to adopt the
same course toward others. We will consider the commandment just cited,
noticing how ingeniously and wisely it is arranged. It brings out four
thoughts. First, it states who is under obligation to love: thou the nearest,
noblest, best individual we can command. No one can fulfill the Law of
God for another; each must do it for himself. As Paul says (Gal 6, 5),
"Each man shall bear his own burden." And (2 Cor 5, 10): "For
we must all be made manifest before the judgment-seat of Christ; that each
one may receive the things done in the body, according to what he bath
done, whether it be good or bad." So it is said, "Thou, thou
thyself, must love ;" not, "Let someone else love for you."
Though one can and should pray that God may be gracious to another and
help him, yet no one will be saved unless he himself fulfills God's command.
It is not enough merely to pray that another may escape punishment, as
the venders of indulgences teach; much rather, we should pray that he become
righteous and observe God's precepts.
30. Second, the commandment names the most noble virtue love. It does
not say, "Thou shalt feed thy neighbor, give him drink, clothe him,"
all of which things are inestimably good works; it says, "Thou shalt
love him." Love is the chief virtue, the fountain of all virtues.
Love gives food and drink; it clothes, comforts, persuades, relieves and
rescues. What shall we say of it, for behold he who loves gives himself,
body and soul, property and honor, all his powers inner and external, for
his needy neighbor's benefit, whether it be friend or enemy; he withholds
nothing wherewith he may serve another. There is no virtue like love; there
can be no special work assigned it as in the case of limited virtues, such
as chastity, mercy, patience, meekness, and the like. Love does all things.
It will suffer in life and in death, in every condition, and that even
for its enemies. Well may Paul here say that all other commandments are
briefly comprehended in the injunction, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor
31. Third, the commandment names, as the sphere of our love, the noblest
field, the dearest friend our neighbor. It does not say, "Thou shalt
love the rich, the mighty, the learned, the saint." No, the unrestrained
love designated in this most perfect commandment does not apportion itself
among the few. With it is no respect of persons. It is the nature of false,
carnal, worldly love to respect the individual, and to love only so long
as it hopes to derive profit. When such hope ceases, that love also ceases.
The commandment of our text, however, requires of us free, spontaneous
love to all men, whoever they may be, and whether friend or foe, a love
that seeks not profit, and administers only what is beneficial. Such love
is most active and powerful in serving the poor, the needy, the sick, the
wicked, the simple-minded and the hostile; among these it is always and
under all circumstances necessary to suffer and endure, to serve and do
32. Note here, this commandment makes us all equal before God, without
regard to distinctions incident to our stations in life, to our persons,
offices and occupations. Since the commandment is to all to every human
being a sovereign, if he be a human being, must confess the poorest beggar,
the most wretched leper, his neighbor and his equal in the sight of God.
He is under obligation, according to this commandment, not to extend a
measure of help, but to serve that neighbor with all he has and all he
controls. If he loves him as God here commands him to do, he must give
the beggar preference over his crown and all his realm; and if the beggar's
necessity requires, must give his life. He is under obligation to love
his neighbor, and must admit that such a one is his neighbor.
33. Is not this a superior, a noble, commandment, which completely levels
the most unequal individuals? Is it not wonderfully comforting to the beggar
to have servants and lovers of such honor? wonderful that his poverty commands
the services of a king in his opulence? that to his sores and wounds are
subject the crown of wealth and the sweet savor of royal splendor? But
how strange it would seem to us to behold kings and queens, princes and
princesses, serving beggars and lepers, as we read St. Elizabeth did! Even
this, however, would be a slight thing in comparison with what Christ has
done. No one can ever equal him in the obedience wherewith he has exalted
this commandment. He is a king whose honor transcends that of all other
kings; indeed, he is the Son of God. And yet he puts himself on a level
with the worst sinners, and serves them even to dying for them. Were ten
kings of earth to serve to the utmost one beggar, it would be a remarkable
thing; but of what significance would it be in comparison with the service
Christ has rendered' The kings would be put to utter shame and would have
to acknowledge their service unworthy of notice.
34. Learn, then, the condition of the world how far it is, not only
from Christ's immeasurable example, but from the commandment in this verse.
Where are to be found any who comprehend the meaning of the little phrase
"thy neighbor," notwithstanding there is, beside this commandment,
the natural law of service written in the hearts of all men? Not an individual
is there who does not realize, and who is not forced to confess, the justice
and truth of the natural law outlined in the command (Mt 7, 12), "All
things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even
so do ye also unto them." The light of this law shines in the inborn
reason of all men. Did they but regard it, what need have they of books,
teachers or laws? They carry with them in the depths of their hearts a
living book, fitted to teach them fully what to do and what to omit, what
to accept and what to reject, and what decision to make. Now, the command
to love our neighbors as ourselves is equivalent to that other, "Whatsoever
ye would that men should do unto you," etc. Every individual desires
to be loved and not hated; and he also feels and sees his obligation to
exercise the same disposition toward others. The carrying out of this obligation
is loving another as himself. But evil lust and sinful love obscure the
light of natural law, and blind man, until he fails to perceive the guide-book
in his heart and to follow the clear command of reason. Hence he must be
restrained and repelled by external laws and material books, with the sword
and by force. He must be reminded of his natural light and have his own
heart revealed to him. Yet admonition does not avail; he does not see the
light. Evil lust and sinful love blind him. With the sword and with political
laws he must still be outwardly restrained from perpetrating actual crimes.
35. The fourth thing the commandment presents is the standard by which
we are to measure our love an excellent model. Those are particularly worthy
instructions and commandments which present examples. This commandment
holds up a truly living example "thyself." It is a better model
than any example the saints have set. The saints are dead and their deeds
are past, but this example ever lives. Everyone must admit a consciousness
of his own love for himself; of his ardent concern for his temporal life;
of his careful nourishment of his body with food, raiment and all good
things; of his fleeing from death and avoiding evil. This is self-love;
something we are conscious of in ourselves. What, then, is the teaching
of the commandment? To do to another as you do to yourself; to value his
body and his life equally with your own body and life. Now, how could God
have pointed you to an example dearer, more pleasing and more to the purpose
than this example the deep instinct of your nature? Indeed, your depth
of character is measured by the writing of this command in your heart.
36. How will you fare with God if you do not love your neighbor? Feeling
this commandment written within your heart, your conscience will condemn
you. Your whole conduct will be an example witnessing against you, testifying
to your failure to do unto others as the natural instinct of your being,
more forcibly than all the examples of the saints, has taught you to do.
But how will it go with the ecclesiasts in particular the churchmen with
their singing and praying, their cowls and bald pates, and all their jugglery?
I make no comment on the fact that they have never observed the commandment.
I ask, however, when has their monastic fanaticism permitted them time
and opportunity to perceive for once this law in their hearts, to become
sensible of the example set them in their own human instinct, or even to
read the precept in books or hear it preached ? Poor, miserable people!
Do you presume to think that God will make void this, love's commandment,
so deeply and clearly impressed upon the heart, so beautifully and unmistakably
illustrated in your own natures, and in the many written and spoken words
as well think you God will do this on account of your cowls and bald pates,
and regard what you have been devising and performing?
37. Alas, how shamelessly the world has ignored this beautiful and impressive
commandment wherein are so skillfully presented the individual, the task,
the model and the sphere of labor! And, on the other hand, how shamefully
it occupies itself with the very reverse of what is taught in this commandment!
Its whole practice and tendency seem to be to place our responsibility
upon others; monks and priests must be righteous for us and pray in our
stead, that we may personally be excused. For the noblest virtue, love,
we substitute self-devised worlds; in the place of our neighbors we put
wood and stone, raiment and food, even dead souls the saints of heaven.
These we serve; with them we are occupied; they are the sphere wherein
we exercise ourselves. Instead of the noblest example "as thyself"
we look to the legends and the works of saints. We presume to imitate such
outward examples, omitting the duty which our own nature and life present
and which the command of God outlines, notwithstanding such duty offers
more than we could ever fulfill. Even if we could accomplish all it offers,
we would still not equal Christ.
LOVE WORKS ONLY GOOD TO ITS NEIGHBOR.
"Love worketh no ill to his neighbor: love, therefore, is the fulfillment
of the law."
38. The Ten Commandments forbid doing evil to our neighbor "Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not commit adultery," etc. The apostle, employing similar phraseology, says that love observes all these commands, injuring none. Not only that; it effects good for all. It is practically doing evil to permit our neighbor to remain in peril when we can relieve him, even though we may not have been instrumental in placing him where he is. If he is hungry and we do not feed him when it is in our power to do so, we practically permit him to die of hunger. We should take this view concerning any perilous condition, any adverse circumstance, with our neighbors. How love is the fulfillment of the Law, we have now heard.